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MANE 007 Solved Assignment 2023-24


MANE 007 Solved Assignment 2023-24

Tribes in India

MANE 007 Solved Assignment 2023-24 : All assignments are in PDF format which would be send on email/WhatsApp (9958676204) just after payment.

Course code: MANE 007

Assignment Code: MANE 007/ASST/TMA/2023-24

Marks: 100

                                                     SECTION A

Q1. Discuss the anthropological definitions of Tribes. Critically examine the debate on Tribe-Caste continuum.

Anthropologists have approached the concept of tribes from various perspectives, and the definition of tribes has evolved over time. Traditionally, tribes were often seen as small, pre-modern societies characterized by kinship ties, a shared culture, and a common territory. However, contemporary anthropological discussions have led to a more nuanced understanding of tribes, acknowledging the diversity and complexity of these social groups.

Anthropological Definitions of Tribes:

Kinship and Descent:

Many early anthropologists emphasized the role of kinship and descent in defining tribes. Tribes were often viewed as kin-based societies, where social organization and identity were grounded in familial ties.

Cultural Homogeneity:

Another common criterion for defining tribes was cultural homogeneity. Tribes were seen as communities with shared customs, beliefs, and practices that distinguished them from neighboring groups.


The notion of a common territory was also central to the definition of tribes. This territoriality was not just geographical but often included a cultural landscape tied to the group's identity.

Political Organization:

Political organization within tribes was often characterized by decentralized leadership, with authority distributed among elders or leaders chosen based on lineage.

Debate on Tribe-Caste Continuum:

The debate on the Tribe-Caste continuum revolves around the classification of social groups in South Asia, particularly in countries like India, where the terms "tribe" and "caste" are used to categorize different communities.

Historical Perspective:

The British colonial administration in India played a significant role in classifying communities into tribes and castes. Tribes were often associated with indigenous or Adivasi communities, while castes were linked to the Hindu social hierarchy.

Socio-Economic Factors:

The debate arises from the fact that tribes are often perceived as more marginalized and economically disadvantaged, while castes are seen as part of a stratified social structure. However, this oversimplified binary does not capture the complexity of social realities.

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Fluidity and Ambiguity:

Critics argue that the Tribe-Caste continuum oversimplifies social diversity by implying a clear distinction between the two categories. In reality, there are communities that exhibit characteristics of both tribes and castes, challenging the rigid classification.

Identity and Autonomy:

The debate also encompasses issues of identity and autonomy. Some communities labeled as tribes may reject this classification, asserting their unique cultural identity. Similarly, certain groups classified as castes may resist being subsumed under a broader category.

Legal and Policy Implications:

The Tribe-Caste continuum has legal and policy implications, as different categories may receive distinct affirmative action and welfare measures. This has led to discussions about the effectiveness and fairness of such classifications.

In conclusion, anthropological definitions of tribes have evolved beyond simplistic criteria, recognizing the diversity and dynamism of these social groups. The Tribe-Caste continuum debate highlights the challenges in classifying complex social structures and emphasizes the need for a more nuanced understanding that considers historical, cultural, and socio-economic factors.

Q2. Deliberate on the concept of Indigenous populations. Discuss the same in the context of identity in India

Q3. Write a note on customary laws and its relevance in the present era with suitable examples.

Q4. Examine the traditions of shifting and terrace cultivations with suitable examples.

Q5. Write short notes:

a. Socialisation and Childhood

b. Social differentiation and stratification


Q6. Reflect on the land alienation and debt-bondage among the Tribes of India with suitable examples.

Q7. Examine the forest policies and the emergence of Forest Rights Act 2006

Q8. Critically examine various Tribal commissions and their recommendations.

Q9. Discuss the contributions of anthropologists in the study of Tribes.

Q10. Write short notes

a. Tribes and education


MANE 007 Solved Assignment 2023-24 : All assignments are in PDF format which would be send on email/WhatsApp (9958676204) just after payment.


Dear Learner,

You have to submit one assignment in each course, i.e. MANE 007 Solved Assignment 2023-24. All these are Tutor Marked Assignments (TMAs). Before attempting the assignments, please read the instructions provided in the Programme Guide carefully.

Kindly note, you have to submit these assignments to the Coordinator of your Study Centre within the stipulated time for being eligible to appear in the term-end examination. You must mention your Enrolment Number, Name, Address, Assignment Code and Study Centre Code on the first page of the assignment. You must obtain a receipt from the Study Centre for the assignments submitted and retain it. Keep photocopies of the assignments with you.

After evaluation, the assignments have to be returned to you by the Study Centre. Please insist on this and keep a record with you. The marks obtained by you will be sent by the Study Centre to the Student Evaluation Division at IGNOU, New Delhi.

Guidelines for Doing Assignments

There are five questions in each assignment, all carry equal marks. Attempt all the questions in not more than 500 words (each). You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

Planning: Read the assignments carefully. Go through the units on which they are based, make some points regarding each question and then rearrange them in a logical order

Organization and Presentation: Be analytical in your selection of the information for your answer. Give adequate attention to the introduction and the conclusion. Make sure that your answer is logical and coherent; has a proper flow of information.

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